Drained weight (ATG)" is a much used term in the field of food production/trade. The term is defined in the Food Information Regulation (LMIV), which is omnipresent to us.
If a solid food is in an infusion liquid, the drained weight of the food shall also be indicated. For glazed foods, the glazing agent is not included in the stated net weight of the food.
The following products are considered to be infusion liquids - where appropriate in mixtures and also frozen or deep-frozen - provided that they play only a minor role in relation to the essential constituents of the preparation in question and are consequently not decisive for the purchase: Water, aqueous salt solutions, brine, edible acids in aqueous solution; vinegar, aqueous sugar solutions, aqueous solutions of other sweeteners or sweetening agents, fruit or vegetable juices in the case of fruits and vegetables. (EU Regulation 1169/2011 Annex IX No. 5)
Infusion liquids are used, among other things, to flavor, preserve and/or prevent food from drying out.
Both the total fill quantity (net weight) and the drained weight must be in a visual field (as defined by food law) with the sales description.
Edible oils are not considered as infusion liquids, i.e. in the case of a product infused in oil, the weight of the oil is part of the total filling quantity. Contrary to this statement, an ATG is also voluntarily indicated for some foods in addition to the net filling quantity. In particular, this is the case with canned "tuna in oil".
Particularly in the wholesale/retail sector, the drained weight must be taken into account, as the basic price for products for which the indication is mandatory relates to this and not to the net filling quantity. (Price Indication Ordinance PAngV § 2 para. 3)
The fruit "pineapple" is basically first distinguished according to the different varieties. The variety best known to us in canned form and most suitable for industrial processing is "Smooth Cayenne". It is mainly grown and processed in Thailand, Indonesia and Kenya and has the most intense flavor due to its high acidity. In addition, there is the "Spanish Queen" also from Indonesia, as well as the "Queen-variety" which comes from Vietnam. This variety is mainly used in frozen processing, is bright yellow in color, but not as aromatic in taste.
If we concentrate on "Smooth Cayenne", we distinguish the individual qualities "Standard" (our quality mainly traded in Germany, pale yellow), "Choice" (more yellow, because riper in color and taste) and "Fancy" (strong yellow and with high own fruit sweetness). Pineapple slices are traded by size of "ring diameter": For example, in a 580ml can, the ring size traded is predominantly 2, of which there are then 10 slices per can. In a 850ml can, mainly only 8 whole slices of ring 1 are put in, which have correspondingly more slice thickness. From these respective ring sizes, either 14, 16 (the common number of pieces from ring 2) or 18 pieces are then cut for the production of the pineapple pieces. By using another slicing knife, pineapple cubes are also produced from the slices. While so-called standard products are also produced from broken slices, only whole slices are used for the production of the better "tidbits" quality. Pineapple rasps" are also produced - as a "waste product" - from too small whole fruits or more broken pineapple parts.
Pineapple is also a very popular raw material for the beverage industry worldwide.
- Pineapple cut and sweet
The size of the fruit slices determines the cuts and thus also the quantity of contents in our ADRIA cans: Thus, the common pineapple ring size 2 (ring average: 80-83 mm) results in 10 to a maximum of 60 slices in each of our three can sizes 580 to 3100 ml (see table). However, the ring size also determines the cut and quantity of pineapple pieces that go into the ADRIA cans. Example: slices of ring size 2 result in 16 pieces (1/16 cut). Pineapple slices with the smallest diameter (60-65 mm) yield 12 pieces (1/12 cut). Accordingly, pieces from a 1/12 cut are shorter, pieces from a 1/18 cut (ring size 1) are slightly longer. Paul M. Müller mainly deals with the common 1/16 cut. We also have so-called pineapple "rasps" (Engl. crushed) in their own juice in the 3100 ml ADRIA can in our assortment. These are often used as a fruit garnish for yogurt, for example.
Incidentally, the sweetness of pineapple is usually differentiated between sugared (mostly in "choice" goods with a Brix content of 18-20), lightly sugared (standard goods, 14-17 Brix), in pineapple juice (only fructose) and water pack (especially suitable for diabetics, as no sugar is added). In the retail trade, the current trend is from "sweetened" or "lightly sweetened" to "pineapple juice" in order to satisfy the health aspect.
You can find an overview of the internal forces here (PDF)
Forming and joining technology: This is understood to mean the right-angled bending open of the edge of round or oval sheet metal using a flanging machine. The history of flanging as we know it began around 1900, when the first tin cans were flanged. Flanging is used to join sheet metal parts or different thin flat parts or even tubes together - by welding, folding, riveting, gluing or soldering. In many cases, however, flanging serves only to stiffen the material.
In connection with tomato products, you can always read about the BRIX (content). However, the meaning of this quality characteristic is not familiar to everyone.
The Brix value is given in degrees Brix (° Bx) and is a unit of measurement of the relative density of liquids. It indicates, how much dissolved sugar is in a liquid solution and is determined with a refractometer. In the food industry, the refractometer is used predominantly in the Wine, fruit, vegetable and beverage industry for quality control are used to measure the sugar content. The handheld devices used enable fast, simple and safe measurement. For example, 25° Bx means that there are 25 g of sugar in 100 g of a solution. A fresh sun-ripened tomato from the field usually has a natural Brix content between 4.8 - 5.0° Bx.
The higher the Brix content, the "higher quality" the product is for the cook. He saves on boiling down the tomatoes for his sauce or no longer needs to add tomato paste to obtain a creamy end product. Every amateur chef knows that when fresh tomatoes are pureed or chopped and simmered over medium heat, water evaporates and after a while we get a creamy tomato sauce. The longer you boil down, the higher the Brix content becomes.
With PMM's whole, peeled tomatoes (2650 ml can), a thickened juice (tomato puree with approx. 7.5 Brix) is also added during production. Both together, the natural sweetness of the tomato and that of the puree, result in the final product of about 6 - 6.5 ° Bx. This is a Brix content that is wonderful to work with in the professional kitchen. Speaking of tomato paste, 3 times concentrated: In this PMM product we come to a very high content of 36 - 38 ° Bx. Here it is necessary to pay special attention to quality and balance in the production, so that the taste of fruitiness and sweetness is not lost at such a high concentration.
The indication of a count or a caliber is not mandatory in food law, but it helps with orientation and is part of good manners from a commercial point of view in order to exclude any misunderstanding when purchasing.
So: The caliber for olives for example, is a measure of how many whole olives come to a given weight.
Important: The count always refers to 100 grams of raw material before processing.
This should be known, because after processing and, if necessary, coring, the weight and size of the olives change.
In the trade, the count is extrapolated on a kilogram basis, i.e. multiplied by a factor of 10.
It applies in any case: The lower the count, the larger and higher quality the olives. Paul M. Müller, for example, trades in ADRIA canned goods with a count of 26/29 as a short designation. This means that there are approximately 260 to 290 olives per kilogram of raw material. In the ADRIA jar, for example, we offer a count of 28/32, which means that there are approximately 280 to 320 olives per kilogram of raw material. Our popular top product ADRIA-Queens comes to a count of about 100 to 110 large, flavorful olives.
For whole artichoke hearts, the number of pieces is given in counts. However, the Count for artichokes counted differently. Important: The larger the count, the smaller the artichoke hearts. This means that a count of 30/40 indicates a number of pieces of approximately 30 to 40 hearts in the can. ADRIA canned artichoke hearts are available in small cans (425 ml) with counts of 5/7 or 8/12 up to a high count of 25/30, 30/40 to 50/60 for large cans (2650 ml). Small hearts are correspondingly more expensive.
Once again differently the Count with our agate snails counted. Here, the count is declared in dozens. That is, in the 850 ml ADRIA can (30 oz) we have about 12 dozen, so about 144 snails.
- Can code
The professionals identify the manufacturer at a glance by means of the can code. This used to be "punched in", today it is usually printed on by inkjet printer and can vary. In southern Italy, for example, each manufacturer usually still has its own code for the plant: e.g. ANB1 = Eurocom. Then there is a letter or a number for the year of production, followed by three digits, e.g. "223" as the twenty-third day of the calendar year. More and more often, this is combined with the time for the exact production time in the factory. In more modern factories, for example, the internal batch number of the importer can also be printed on the label - this perfectly guarantees the traceability of the goods according to IFS-Broker. In addition, the best-before date is usually printed on the can lid.
- Can sizes
How big are the cans in which our Adria products are freshly packed?
You can find all this information in our Can overview (PDF)
- Harvest calendar
When do artichokes, olives, tomatoes ripen in the year in which countries? Or when and where are the best peaches?
You can find all this info in our Harvest calendar (PDF)
- Fishing areas
The UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has divided the world's oceans into 19 Fishing areas
divided. These fishing areas have both a number and an area-specific name. Where possible, the boundaries follow those of intergovernmental fisheries agreements or organizations. The FAO fishing areas are used as a basis for uniform global labeling of the origin of fish products. Within these fishing areas, there are further subdivisions by ecoregions. For example, fishing area 71 (Western Pacific Ocean) includes the ecoregions of the Indonesian Sea, North, Northeast and East Central Australia, as well as the Sulu and Celebes Seas and the South China Sea. From these regions comes the tuna "skipjack". Regular checks and comparisons of landed catches and spawning stocks in these regions are intended to protect the species.
You can find an overview of our fishing areas here (PDF).
- Fishing methods tuna
For the tuna species 'Skipjack' mainly traded by our company and throughout continental Europe, the main fishing methods are as follows:
Fishing with rod and lines (= engl. POLE & LINE)
As the name suggests, the fish is caught individually with a fishing rod. For this purpose, bait is released from smaller bait boats. The advantage of this fishing method is obvious: there is no "by-catch". However, the quantity of fish caught in this way is very limited and therefore correspondingly more expensive.
Purse Seiner (= English purse seine) catch
This is currently the most common fishing method, in which "fish aggregators" / FADs are used to attract the shoals (FAD = Fish Aggregating Device). However, with this fishing method, the FADs are increasingly being dispensed with (this is referred to as FAD-FREE goods).
The company Paul M. Müller is a member of the "Earth Island Institute" (EII), which implemented an international control program originally against drift nets. This should prevent the so-called by-catch (originally dolphins).
MSC (= Marine Stewardship Council)
This organization was founded in 1997 due to severe overfishing of the oceans in some cases. Its primary goal is to protect the world's fish stocks. In addition, the protection of the entire ecosystem in general (food chain, other fish and bird species, and bycatch) is also a priority. To this end, fisheries are inspected and certified worldwide. The supply is extremely scarce and correspondingly expensive. In addition, all companies involved in the trade must be MSC-certified.
- Receipt confirmations
Since January 1, 2014, entrepreneurs have been obliged to have a confirmation of receipt for every export of goods within the EU (so-called intra-Community delivery) and to archive it. The tax authorities have recently been attaching more and more importance to this and ask for the confirmation of arrival to be handed over during the company audits.
Only if a confirmation of receipt with the following components is available is a VAT-exempt invoice to another EU country justified and recognized by the tax authorities. However, there is no uniform form requirement for this. You now have the choice of issuing a separate confirmation of receipt for each transaction or, alternatively, a collective confirmation for transactions up to one quarter.
- Buyers' market
A so-called "buyers' market" is the result of falling prices in the market. The cause of this market situation is a supply surplus, which occurs when supply increases and demand remains constant. Analogously, a buyer's market also prevails if the cause is a demand deficit which results when demand falls and supply remains constant.
- Capers caliber
The world demand for capers is about 18,000 tons. This year, about 15% (1,200to) less was harvested in Central Asia (Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan) and only 1/3 of the regular season in Iran. Thus, there is about 2,000to less available in these provenances and the shortage is greatest in the large calibers. There is also a shortage of the large grades in Morocco and Syria. Overall, there will probably be about 20% or about 3,500to less available from the current crop.
On the other hand, there are still surplus stocks from the 2017 harvest that will probably lead to a volume balance.
The closed caper buds are harvested by hand in spring and are inedible raw. They are first rolled for a day and then pickled in brine and vinegar.
This process produces capric acid and mustard oil glycosides, which give capers their spicy-piquant flavor. Capers should be closed, olive to bluish-green and as small as possible.
In France, capers are divided into different classes according to their size:
"Nonpareilles" (4-7 millimeters)
"Surfines" (7-8 millimeters)
"Capucines" (8-9 millimeters)
"Capotes" (9-10 millimeters)
"Fines" (12-13 millimeters)
"Hors calibres" (13-15 millimeters)
Corn (lat. Zea Mays) - the usually golden-yellow grain (there are also some dark red varieties) from the field is food for humans and animals at the same time. Corn belongs to the sweet grass family (lat. Poaceae) and is one of the most important staple foods worldwide. Originally, the crop was native to Central America.
Many corn varieties have a high starch content and serve as a fodder crop. Increasingly, however, corn is also being used as a renewable raw material for the production of biogas, biofuel or biomaterials (bioplastics).
The special thing about sweet corn (also called vegetable corn), on the other hand, is that the sugar stored in the kernels is only slowly converted into starch during ripening. This explains the pleasant sweet taste of the corn kernels. It is precisely this taste that we love in the kitchen.
There exists a great variety of corn varieties, which can be classified according to their grain type. This results in different uses: For example, grain corn is used in ground form to make dough and bread, soft corn is used to make tortillas, and hard corn is used in the form of cornstarch flour for cooking and baking. Moviegoers and idlers enjoy puffed corn in the form of popcorn. And sweet corn is used, for example, as grilled corn on the cob.
- Best before date (MHD)
Far too much food is thrown away. One of the reasons for throwing it away is a misunderstood indication on food: the legally required best-before date (MHD). Almost half of the food that is disposed of because of an expired best-before date ends up unopened in the trash. But this is not necessary. In most cases, a close look, a careful smell and careful tasting quickly reveal whether the food is still edible. The best-before date is a quality date, not a throwaway date, and has been legally prescribed in Germany since 1981 - as a guide for consumers. Important for the shelf life is the proper storage of the products as well as their proper transport, for example from the store to home. If stored correctly, the products can in most cases be eaten or drunk even after the best-before date has expired. Once the best-before date has been reached or exceeded, everyone can judge for themselves whether a food product is still good. If significant changes in color, consistency, odor or taste are noticeable, the products should better be thrown away. Exceeding the best-before date is cited as a reason for throwing away six percent of discarded foods, one-third of which are dairy products. As soon as the packaging is opened, oxygen, moisture or microorganisms reach the food. Thus, it loses freshness and shelf life more quickly. Nevertheless, you should first check whether the food is still edible. Some products are labeled with the shelf life after opening the package.
How the best-before date must be labeled is regulated in the EU Food Information Regulation. According to this, the wording "Best before..." is mandatory if the day is mentioned. If the best-before date is specified without a day, the wording "Best before the end of..." is mandatory. The best-before date provides indispensable guidance when purchasing and storing processed and packaged foods.
Not all peppers are the same, only the origin is always the same: a climbing plant ("piper nigrum") whose original home is in southwestern India, but which is now also cultivated in Malaysia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Brazil. Under ideal conditions - a warm tropical climate, high humidity and nutrient-rich soil - the pepper plant can climb up to ten meters into the treetops and be harvested twice a year.
The harvest time usually falls in the dry climate periods of the respective country. Since mechanical harvesting could damage the berries, which grow in panicles, they are usually picked by hand, making the process laborious and expensive. A healthy plant yields an average of four kilos per harvest. In recent decades, world production of pepper has risen to over 280,000 tons per year.
Whether the pepper tastes hot, fruity, sourish, sweetish or aromatic depends on the growing region, but above all on the time of harvest and on further processing. Unripe peppercorns are green. They can be picked at this stage and processed into green pepper. Green pepper is used unground, it is soft and less spicy than black pepper. If the green berries are left to dry slowly in the sun, they ferment and acquire their typical wrinkled appearance and black coloration. Some berries remain on the tree until they are ripe and red. After harvest, they are either peeled by washing/soaking and processed into white pepper or dried whole. White pepper has a less strong aroma and a purer spiciness than black pepper. The rather rare red pepper is used unground like the green, but is hotter than its younger brother.
- Ring pull lid
The so-called ring-pull lids (or also called easy-open lids) save the old-fashioned can opener in this day and age. Ring-pull closures are cap closures made of aluminum or tinplate, which - provided with a tear ring - also belong to the crown cork closures.
Anchovy fillets in a can - the production is very laborious and almost exclusively handmade.
When the fresh anchovies (a type of herring) arrive at the factories every day, they go through a long process to become a delicious delicacy. The fish is immediately salted and transported in plastic containers to the next processing step. The heads are cut off, the fish is gutted and sorted by size. It is then rinsed, salted again and stored in barrels for several months to mature at room temperature. The storage time depends on the gusto or the consumption habits in the different countries. After emptying the barrels, the fish is washed intensively. During this process, part of the skin comes off by itself, the rest is removed by hand. The rest of the fish is spun in large drums, during which all the water escapes. The now dry fish bodys are temporarily stored at below 15 °C. During further processing, where the fish are laboriously filleted by hand and filled into the cans and jars, about 500 predominantly female workers are employed per shift. Each can and jar is then weighed by hand, the container filled with oil, the lid applied and mechanically sealed. The can or jar is washed, dried, inkjet marked, labeled and packed into cartons. It then goes to the shipping department to be sent to many countries around the world.
The pungency of a food, i.e. the sharpness of the taste, is measured in "Scoville": This unit of measurement provides information on how spicy a food is and determines the capsaicin content of the product: capsaicin belongs to the chemical group of alkaloids (organic nitrogenous chem. compounds) and is extracted from the nightshade plant Capsicum (bell pepper variety). It is one of the hottest substances on earth. So: The higher the capsaicin content, the hotter the pepper! The Scoville measurement method is abbreviated to SHU (Scoville Heat Units) and describes the detectable spiciness by calculating the pure capsaicin content in the respective product. Until the year 2000, the maximum value was defined as 16,000,000 Scoville. For example, the simple garden bell pepper with no detectable heat has a Scoville grade of 0. However, the Scoville scale now ranges from 0 to 25,000,000 - the heat level of pure capsaicin.
The vegetable tomato belongs to the nightshade family. The name tomato in use today comes from the Aztec. According to history, the plant comes from Central and South America and was probably brought to Europe with the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. In French, tomatoes used to be called "pommes d'amour" (love apples), as they were believed to have an aphrodisiac effect. In Italy, this name was adopted as "pomo d'amore" (love apple), which over time became pomodoro.
Among other things, the tomato contains vitamins A, B and C, as well as sodium, potassium, magnesium and folic acid. In addition, the plant substance lycopene, a carotenoid that acts against free radicals and is supposed to prevent oxidative stress caused by UV radiation. While the minerals are said to regulate the skin's moisture balance, vitamin A can control sebum production and vitamin C prevents premature aging. Lycopene is also responsible for the color of the tomato. Excitingly, the absorption of this heat-stable pigment in the body is said to be better from cooked or processed tomatoes than from the raw tomatoes. Therefore, you should definitely eat cooked tomatoes or even tomato paste more often. Or ADRIATomatoes in a can!
- Use by date
The use-by date is to be evaluated differently than the best-before date. It appears on perishable foods as "To be consumed by..." and is also meant literally: After the use-by date has expired, the food may no longer be sold, but must actually be disposed of. Therefore, the use-by date and the best-before date must not be confused. In contrast to the best-before date, the use-by date specifies the exact time by which the food may be consumed. Perishable foods, for example minced meat and fresh poultry meat, can be spoiled by germs and be harmful to health without this being perceived by the consumer's own senses. A use-by date must be indicated on these foods. It is also imperative that the storage conditions are observed and that the cold chain is maintained during transport from the store to the consumer's home. Products after the consumption date should not be consumed!
Inquiries to the consumer centers show that there is often uncertainty about the meaning of the best-before date: Some consumers equate the best-before date with the use-by date and interpret it as an "expiration date". From the point of view of the consumer centers, all labeling elements and thus also the best before date should be easy for consumers to understand. This is because the best before date on products is often difficult to find, taped over or difficult to read. Thus, some consumers do not notice the short shelf life of a food product until after they have purchased it. They are thus misled about the quality of the food with regard to the age of the product, complains the consumer center.
- Seller's Market
The so-called "sellers' market" describes a market situation of rising prices. The cause of a seller's market is a supply deficit, which arises when supply falls and demand remains constant. However, it is also possible that there is a surplus of demand, which occurs when demand increases and supply remains constant. In this case, we also speak of a sellers' market.
- Packaging Act
There are already a few things to keep in mind in 2018. On January 1, 2019, the new Packaging Act will replace the Packaging Ordinance. Not only will significantly higher recycling quotas be required, but a new central office will also be installed. It will then be mandatory for all so-called initial distributors, such as manufacturers, distributors or importers, to be registered with the newly created central body. The registered initial distributors will be published on the Internet. This will make it clear to both private and commercial customers whether suppliers or competitors are fulfilling their legal obligations and participating in a dual system. Registration must, of course, already take place in 2018 in order to be allowed to place packaged goods on the German market from January 1, 2019. In addition, all distributors must report their quantities to the central office. The declaration of completeness for 2018 must already be submitted to the Central Office, to which the dual systems must also report the quantities. With this data consolidation, the audit will be significantly simplified.